Identifying Multiple Modes in Excel

Very early in my intro-level statistics courses, I always cover the topics of mean, median, and mode. For any dataset, there can only be a single mean and/or median value, but there can be multiple modes. For some strange reason, the =mode() command in Excel will only provide the first mode that appears in a dataset, even when multiple modes exist! For this reason, I made a guide on how to use the =mode.mult() command. Never again should you incorrectly identify the number of modes in a dataset!

Here is the link:

Descriptive Statistics in Excel

I just added a page on How to Calculate Descriptive Statistics in Excel to the Excel Statistics Help portion of my Statistics Help page.  If you need help calculating descriptives, click here:

As always, email me at if you have any questions!

How to Perform a T-Test in Excel

Recently, I added a page on How to Perform a T-Test in Excel to the Excel Statistics Help portion of my Statistics Help page.  So, if you need help performing a t-test in excel, click here:

As always, email me at if you have any questions!

A New Website!

On, I try to keep the content relevant to my academic work.  That is, most of the pages and posts are either (a) answers to student questions, (b) answers to statistical research questions, (c) or relevant to my current
studies.  I recently realized that has little room for content
regarding my consulting experiences.  For this reason, I started the website!

The purpose of is to educate readers about
nefarious statistical practices commonly seen in industry – practices that could be costing you thousands…or even millions!  Most of the posts will discuss
business statistical issues, but many topics will also cross-over into research discussions.  For instance, the first post is about p-hacking, which can be used to advance an expensive consulting agenda or successfully publish lackluster
research findings.  So, it does not matter if you are currently in academia or
business, should have enjoyable content for everyone.

Testing for Dual Mediation

mediationRecently, I performed a study in which I needed to test for dual mediation – when the
indirect effect of Y on X goes through two mediators
(pictured here).  Whenever I need to test for mediation or moderation of any type, I first go to Hayes’s PROCESS macro for SPSS.  It is easy, and it adheres to most all
current best-practices.  If you don’t have it yet, I STRONGLY suggest that you download it now: .  It has saved me hours (days?) on statistical analyses.

So, I opened up the documentation for PROCESS and I found…that it does not have a model for dual mediation!  Of all things, I would have assumed that PROCESS would be able to test for dual mediation!

I searched online for solutions, and I even referred to mediation textbooks to
devise a formula to test for dual mediation.  After having moderate success, I
finally went back to PROCESS.  Out of frustration, I set the program to test the traditional mediation model (with one mediator), but I included two mediators in the dialogue window.  And what did I see?  It provided output for dual mediation!

While this information may not be groundbreaking, it certainly helped me.  I hope that it can also help someone who is as frustrated with dual mediation as I was.  The permanent page for dual mediation testing can be found here:  Testing for Dual Mediation .

If you need any help running dual mediation in process (or any other statistical questions), feel free to email me at  I always
enjoy hearing from people running interesting statistics!

Commonly Used Survey Scales

It’s been awhile since I’ve made a blog post, but I am consistently updating my website.  So, I thought I’d make a quick post about the section that I update the most:  the List of Commonly Used Scales from the Statistical Help section of my website.

This page includes popular scales taken from academic articles.  Most of these prior articles have demonstrated sufficient psychometric properties and validity information regarding the scale, which means that most reviewers and
practitioners would probably be accepting of their use.

The link to the List of Commonly Used Scales can be found here: .

If you have any questions about the application of these scales, feel free to email me at

Seven Things You Should Know about CMA (Comprehensive Meta-Analysis)

CMA PhotoHi All!

I just completed another page on my Statistics Help section of!  The new page
reviews seven things that I wish I knew about CMA (Comprehensive Meta- Analysis) before purchasing the program.  Overall, CMA is very good, but there are certain missing key features.  So, before buying the program, I highly suggest that potential users should read my new Statistics Help page entitled,
Seven Things You Should Know about CMA (Comprehensive Meta-Analysis).

As always, please contact me (Matt Howard) at if you have any statistics or research questions, and please let me know if you would like a page created about a particular statistical method.  Thanks for reading!

Writing Items for a Scale

stock photoEver need to make a scale or survey for work or research?  I just uploaded a page on my Statistics Help portion of my website which gives an overview of the item writing process.  This includes a step-by-step process and common mistakes.  A must-read if you ever need to make a scale or a survey!

Click here to learn about writing items for a scale!

Also, click here for more statistics help!

New Stats Help Page on Item-Sort Tasks

BusinessAndPsychologyIn light of my fairly recent article in the Journal of Business and Psychology, I thought I’d write a brief summary on item-sort tasks.  So, now on the “Stats Help” portion of my website, a guide presents the logic, method, and statistics of item-sort tasks.

In short, the guide explains (a) when to use item-sort tasks and (b) how to perform an item-sort task, and (c) how to analyze an item-sort task.  After reading the guide, most anyone should be able to perform an item-sort task them-self.

As always, if you want to know more about statistics or item-sort tasks, please email me at!  I’m always happy to chat!

2015 SIOP Conference

SIOP2015Hi all!

I’ll be at the 2015 SIOP conference this week in Philadelphia to present two posters.  The first poster is on Friday at 10:30, and it is entitled “The Importance of Person-Specific Approaches in Expatriate Research.”  It notes the necessity to understand the person and person-specific processes when analyzing longitudinal changes in expatriates, which is often a focus of research and practice.  The second poster is also on Friday at 3:30, and it is entitled “Are Head-Mounted
Virtual Reality Systems Useful for Training and Education?”  The study analyzes the confusing outcomes when HMVRSs are used for training purposes.  Both of them will be in Franklin Hall.  If you are at the conference, come by and check them out!