Please contact me at for a current version of my CV which, in addition to the information below, includes articles under review,
articles in progress, presentations, teaching experiences, reviewer appointments, professional experiences, grants, professional honors, and professional

5811 USA Drive South, Mobile, AL 36688 |

Academic Work Experience:

Associate Professor
Mitchell College of Business
University of South Alabama
August 2022 – Present

Assistant Professor
Mitchell College of Business
University of South Alabama
May 2016 – August 2022

Global Scholar
Mitchell College of Business
University of South Alabama
January 2016 – May 2016

Department of Psychology
Pennsylvania State University
January 2016 – May 2016

Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA
Ph.D. in Industrial/Organizational Psychology, December 2015
Dissertation Title: “Science fiction meets scientific inquiry: A meta-analysis of VR applications for training contexts”
Minor: Statistics and Methodology

Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA
M.S. in Industrial/Organizational Psychology, May 2013
Thesis Title: “What makes a king out of a slave? Courage! The creation of a
social courage measure and implications for its use in organizations”

Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA
B.S. in Psychology, May 2011
B.A. in English – Creative Writing & Literature, May 2011
Minor: Leadership and Social Change


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75.) Gutworth, M., Howard, M. C., Simonet, D. (2023). Mandated but willing? Preferences and expectations among mandatory work from home employees. Human Resource Management Journal.

74.) Howard, M. C. (2023). Relation of personal characteristics with human papillomavirus vaccination outcomes: Assessing the mediating role of vaccine hesitancy dimensions. International Journal of Sexual Health.

73.) Howard, M. C. (2023).  Why people fail to participate in annual skin cancer screening: Creation of the perceptions of annual skin cancer screening scale (PASCSS).  Diagnosis. 

72.) Johnson, T., Mauldin, S., Howard, M. C., & Hardin, J. (2023).  Options for meeting the 150-hour requirement to maximize students’ demand as public accounting recruits: Have things changed?  The Accounting Educators’ Journal

71.) Howard, M. C. (2023).  Investigating the relation of political orientation and vaccination outcomes: Identifying the roles of political ideology, party affiliation, and vaccine hesitancy.  Psychological Reports.

70.) Howard, M. C. & Cogswell, J. (2023).  A meta-analysis of polychronicity: Applying modern perspectives of multitasking and person-environment fit.  Organizational Psychology Review

69.) Howard, M. C. & Henderson, J. (2023). A review of exploratory factor analysis in tourism and hospitality research: Identifying current practices and avenues for improvement. Journal of Business Research.

68.) Howard, M. C. (2022). Big five, dark triad, and face masks: The role of personality in reducing the spread of COVID-19. Journal of Individual Differences.

67.) Howard, M. C. & Manix, K. (2022). Assessing the shared facets of honesty-humility and Machiavellianism: Implications for a common conceptual core. Journal of Individual Differences.

66.) Howard, M. C., Forde, W., Whitmore, J., Lambert, E. (2022). “I alone can fix it”: Is social courage a bright side of narcissism? Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance.

65.) Holmes, P. & Howard, M. C. (2022). The duplicitous effect of organizational identification: Applying social identity theory to identify joint relations with workplace social courage and unethical pro-organizational behaviors. Journal of Positive Psychology.

64.) Howard, M. C. & Davis, M. (2022).  The mediating role of vaccine hesitancy in the relations of COVID-19 conspiracy beliefs and vaccination outcomes: Which dimensions matter? Journal of Health Psychology.

63.) Howard, M. C. & Hair, J. (2022). Integrating the expanded task-technology fit theory and the technology acceptance model: A multi-wave empirical analysis. AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction.

62.) Howard, M. C. (2022). Integrating the approach/avoidance framework with multidimensional persistence: Identifying novel mediating effects and outcomes. Personality and Individual Differences.

61.) Howard, M. C. & Davis, M. (2022). A meta-analysis and systematic literature review of mixed reality rehabilitation programs: Investigating design characteristics of augmented reality and augmented virtuality. Computers in Human Behavior.

60.) Howard, M. C. (2022). The good, the bad, and the neutral: Vaccine hesitancy mediates the relations of psychological capital, the Dark Triad, and the Big Five with vaccination willingness and behaviors. Personality and Individual Differences.

59.) Howard, M. C. & Smith, M. (2022).  Employee regret and disappointment: Creation of a scale and foundational application of the approach/avoidance framework.  Applied Psychology.

58.) Howard, M. C. & Boudreaux, M. (2021).  A systematic literature review and meta-analysis of entrepreneurial personality.  Entrepreneurship Research Journal.

57.) Howard, M. C. (2021).  Are face masks a partisan issue during the COVID-19 Pandemic? Differentiating political ideology and political party affiliation.  International Journal of Psychology.

56.) Howard, M.C. (2021).  A more comprehensive measure of vaccine hesitancy: Creation of the Multidimensional Vaccine Hesitancy Scale (MVHS). Journal of Health Psychology.

55.) Howard, M.C. & Floyd, A. (2021).  Reassessing passion and perseverance as dimensions of individual entrepreneurial orientation: A conceptual and empirical investigation into theory and measurement. Entrepreneurship Research Journal.

54.) Howard, M. C. & Serviss, E. (2021). The antecedents and outcomes of corporate volunteering: An employee- and organizational-level meta-analysis. Journal of Managerial Psychology.

53.) Howard, M. C. & Van Zandt, E. (2021).  A meta-analysis of the virtual reality problem: Unequal effects of virtual reality sickness across individual differences.  Virtual Reality.

52.) Howard, M.C., Follmer, K.B., Smith, M.B., Tucker, R.P., & Van Zandt, E.C. (2021).  Work and suicide: An interdisciplinary systematic literature review. Journal of Organizational Behavior.

51.) Howard, M.C., Gutworth, M.G., & Jacobs, R.R. (2021).  A meta-analysis of virtual reality training programs.  Computers in Human Behavior.

50.) Howard, M.C. (2021). The relations between age, face mask perceptions and face mask wearing.  Journal of Public Health.

49.) Howard, M.C. (2021).  Identifying social courage antecedents and mediating effects: Applying the HEXACO and approach/avoidance frameworks.  Personality and Individual Differences.

48.) Howard, M. C. (2021).  Gender, face mask perceptions, and face mask wearing: Are men being dangerous during the COVID-19 pandemic?  Personality and Individual Differences

47.) Howard, M. C. (2021).  Who wants to reopen the economy during the COVID-19 pandemic? The daring and uncaring.  Personality and Individual Differences.

46.) Howard, M. C. & Van Zandt, E. (2020).  The discriminant validity of honesty-humility: A meta-analysis of the HEXACO, Big Five, and Dark Triad.  Journal of Research in Personality.

45.) Howard, M. C. (2020).  Understanding face mask use to prevent coronavirus and other illnesses: Development of a multidimensional face mask perceptions scale.  British Journal of Health Psychology.

44.)  Sarstedt, M., Hair, J., Nitzl, C., Ringle, C., & Howard, M.C. (2020).  Beyond a Tandem Analysis of SEM and PROCESS: Use PLS-SEM for Mediation Analyses!  International Journal of Market Research.

43.) Howard, M. C. (2020).  Using the HEXACO-100 to Measure Individual Entrepreneurial Orientation: Introducing the HEXACO-IEO.  Journal of Business Venturing Insights.

42.) Howard, M. C. & Fox, F. (2020).  Does gender have a significant relationship with social courage? Test of dual sequentially mediated pathways.  Personality and Individual Differences.

41.) Howard, M. C. & Reiley, P. (2020).  Physical courage predicts relevant outcomes in associated contexts: The creation of a measure and empirical analysis into the construct.  Journal of Business Research.

40.) Hair, J., Howard, M. C., & Nitzl, C. (2020).  Assessing measurement model quality in PLS-SEM: Using confirmatory composite analysis.  Journal of Business Research.

39.) Howard, M. C. & Holmes, P. (2020).  Social courage fosters both voice and silence in the workplace: A study on multidimensional voice and silence with boundary conditions.  Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance.

38.) Howard, M. C. & Gutworth, M. G. (2020).  A meta-analysis of virtual reality training programs for social skill development.  Computers & Education.

37.) Howard, M.C., Cogswell, J., & Smith, M. (2020).  The Antecedents and Outcomes of Workplace Ostracism: A Meta-Analysis.  Journal of Applied Psychology.

36.) Howard, M.C. & Murry, A. (2020).  Does the Courage Measure (CM) Measure Persistence Despite Fear? Testing, Psychometrics, and Methodology in Applied Psychology.

35.) Howard, M. C. & Lee, J. (2019).  Pre-training interventions to counteract seductive details in virtual reality training programs.  Human Resource Development Quarterly.

34.) Howard, M.C. (2019).  The effect of training self-efficacy on computer-based training outcomes: Empirical analysis of the construct and creation of two scales.  Performance Improvement Quarterly.

33.) Gutworth, M.G. & Howard, M.C. (2019).  Improving sexual harassment training effectiveness with climate interventions.  Industrial/Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice.

32.) Howard, M.C. & Rose, J. (2019).  Refining and extending task-technology fit theory: Creation of two task-technology fit scales and empirical clarification of the construct.  Information & Management.

31.) Howard, M.C. & Crayne, M. P. (2019).  Persistence: Defining the Multidimensional Construct and Creating a Measure.  Personality and Individual Differences.

30.) Howard, M. C. (2019).  Virtual reality interventions for personal development: A meta-analysis of hardware and software.  Human-Computer Interaction.

29.) Howard, M.C. (2019).  Applying the approach/avoidance framework to understand the relationships between social courage, workplace outcomes, and well-being outcomes.  Journal of Positive Psychology.

28.) Howard, M.C. (2018).  Task performance influences general self-efficacy, even without increases in the skills required to achieve success.  The Journal of Social Psychology.

27.) Howard, M.C. (2018). A meta-reanalysis of dream-ESP studies: Comment on Storm et al. (2017). International Journal of Dream Research, 11(2), 224-229.

26.) Howard, M.C. & Cogswell, J. (2018).  The “other” relationships of self-assessed intelligence: A meta-analysis.  Journal of Research in Personality, 77, 31-46.

25.) Howard, M. C. (2018).  The measurement, nomological net, and theory of perceived self-esteem instability: Applying the conservation of resources theory to understand the construct.  Psychological Reports.

24.) Howard, M. C. (2018).  Scale Pretesting.  Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 23, 1-14.

23.) Howard, M. C. (2018).  The Convergent Validity and Nomological Net of Two Methods to Measure Retroactive Influences.  Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice, 5(3), 324-337.

22.) Howard, M. C. & Cogswell, J. (2018).  The Left Side of Courage: Three Exploratory Studies on the Antecedents of Social Courage.  The Journal of Positive Psychology.

21.)  Howard, M. C. & Hoffman, M. (2018).  Variable-Centered, Person-Centered, and Person-Specific Approaches: Where Theory Meets the Method.  Organizational Research Methods, 21(4), 846-876.

20.) Howard, M. C. & Krannitz, M. A. (2017).  A Reanalysis of Occupation and Suicide: Negative Perceptions of the Workplace Linked to Suicide Attempts.  The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 151(8), 767-788.

19.) Howard, M. C., Travers, S., Marshall, C., & Cogswell, J. (2017). I-O Psychology and Technology: Why Reinvent the Wheel? Industrial/Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 10(4), 659-668.

18.)  Howard, M. C. (2017).  The empirical distinction of core self-evaluations and psychological capital and the identification of negative core self-evaluations and negative psychological capital.  Personality and Individual Differences, 114, 108-118.

17.)  Howard, M. C. (2017) Investigating the simulation elements of environment and control: Extending the Uncanny Valley Theory to simulations. Computers & Education, 109, 216-232.

16.)  Howard, M. C. (2017).  Let’s keep looking for other roads: Improving approaches to identifying and addressing key drivers.  Industrial/Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 10(2), 258-264.

15.) Howard, M. C. (2017). A meta-analysis and systematic literature review of
virtual reality rehabilitation programs. Computers in Human Behavior, 70, 317-327.

14.)  Howard, M. C. (2017). Measuring self-esteem instability through a single-
administration scale: Still a fruitless endeavor?. Personality and Individual
Differences, 104, 522-532.

13.)  Howard, M. C., Farr, J. L., Grandey, A. A., & Gutworth, M. B. (2017).  The creation of the workplace social courage scale (WSCS): An investigation of
internal consistency, psychometric properties, validity, and utility.  Journal of
Business and Psychology, 32(6), 673-690.

12.)  Howard, M. C. & Jacobs, R. R. (2016).  The multiphase optimization
strategy (MOST) and the sequential multiple assignment randomized trial (SMART): Two novel evaluation methods for developing optimal training
programs.  Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37(8), 1246-1270.

11.) Howard, M. C. (2016).  The relationship between the number of raters and the validity of performance ratings.  Industrial/Organizational Psychology:
Perspectives on Science and Practice, 9(2), 361-367.

10.)  Howard, M. C. (2016).  A Review of Exploratory Factor Analysis Decisions and Overview of Current Practices:  What We Are Doing and How Can We
Improve?  International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 32(1), 51-62.

9.) Howard, M. C. & Melloy, R. C. (2016). Evaluating item-sort task methods: The presentation of a new statistical significance formula and methodological best practices. The Journal of Business and Psychology, 31(1), 173-186.

8.) Lydon, D. M., Howard, M. C., Wilson, S. J., & Geier, C. F. (2015). The perceived causal structures of cigarette addiction among late adolescent smokers and non-smokers. The Journal of Health Psychology, 21(9), 2042-2051.

7.) Howard, M. C. & Jayne, B. S. (2015). An analysis of over 1,400 articles, 900 scales, and 17 years of research: The state of scales in CyberPsychology,
Behavior, and Social Networking. CyberPsychology, Behavior, and Social
Networking, 18(3), 181-187.

6.) Hanley, K. E., Howard, M. C., Zhong, B., Soto, J. A., Perez, C. R., Lee, E. A., Dawson-Andoh, N. A., & Minnick, M. R. (2015). The Communication Anxiety
Regulation Scale: Development and initial validation. Communication Quarterly, 63(1), 23-43.

5.) Howard, M. C. & Alipour, K. A. (2014). Does the Courage Measure really
measure courage? A theoretical and empirical evaluation. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 9(5), 449-459.

4.) Howard, M. C. (2014). Creation of a computer self-efficacy measure: Analysis of internal consistency, psychometric properties, and validity. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 17(10), 429-433.

3.) Howard, M. C. (2014). An epidemiological assessment of online groups and a test of a typology: What are the (dis)similarities of the online group types?
Computers in Human Behavior, 31, 123-133.

2.) Howard, M. C. & Magee, S. M. (2013). To boldly go where no group has gone before: An analysis of online group identity and validation of a measure.
Computers in Human Behavior, 29(5), 2058-2071.

1.) Howard, M. C. (2013). Putting the cart before the horse: Subgroup differences in childhood and employment discrimination. Industrial/Organizational
Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 6(4), 429-433.