Please contact me at for a current version of my CV which, in addition to the information below, includes articles under review,
articles in progress, presentations, teaching experiences, reviewer appointments, professional experiences, grants, professional honors, and professional

5811 USA Drive South, Mobile, AL 36688| 540.691.7489 |

Academic Work Experience:
Assistant Professor
Mitchell College of Business
University of South Alabama
May 2016 – Present

Mitchell College of Business
University of South Alabama
January 2016 – May 2016

Department of Psychology
Pennsylvania State University
January 2016 – May 2016

Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA
Ph.D. in Industrial/Organizational Psychology, December 2015
Dissertation Title: “Science fiction meets scientific inquiry: A meta-analysis of VR applications for training contexts”
Minor: Statistics and Methodology

Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA
M.S. in Industrial/Organizational Psychology, May 2013
Thesis Title: “What makes a king out of a slave? Courage! The creation of a
social courage measure and implications for its use in organizations”

Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA
B.S. in Psychology, May 2011
B.A. in English – Creative Writing & Literature, May 2011
Minor: Leadership and Social Change


Click on the article to open a PDF version.

26.) Howard, M. C. (2018).  The measurement, nomological net, and theory of perceived self-esteem instability: Applying the conservation of resources theory to understand the construct.  Psychological Reports.

25.) Howard, M. C. (2018).  Virtual reality interventions for personal development: A meta-analysis of hardware and software.  Human-Computer Interaction.

24.) Howard, M. C. (2018).  Scale Pretesting.  Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 23, 1-14.

23.) Howard, M. C. (2018).  The Convergent Validity and Nomological Net of Two Methods to Measure Retroactive Influences.  Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice.

22.) Howard, M. C. & Cogswell, J. (2018).  The Left Side of Courage: Three Exploratory Studies on the Antecedents of Social Courage.  The Journal of Positive Psychology.

21.) Howard, M. C. & Krannitz, M. A. (2017).  A Reanalysis of Occupation and Suicide: Negative Perceptions of the Workplace Linked to Suicide Attempts.  The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 151(8), 767-788.

20.)  Howard, M. C. & Hoffman, M. (2017).  Variable-Centered, Person-Centered, and Person-Specific Approaches: Where Theory Meets the Method.  Organizational Research Methods.

19.) Howard, M. C., Travers, S., Marshall, C., & Cogswell, J. (2017). I-O Psychology and Technology: Why Reinvent the Wheel? Industrial/Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 10(4), 659-668.

18.)  Howard, M. C. (2017).  The empirical distinction of core self-evaluations and psychological capital and the identification of negative core self-evaluations and negative psychological capital.  Personality and Individual Differences, 114, 108-118.

17.)  Howard, M. C. (2017) Investigating the simulation elements of environment and control: Extending the Uncanny Valley Theory to simulations. Computers & Education, 109, 216-232.

16.)  Howard, M. C. (2017).  Let’s keep looking for other roads: Improving approaches to identifying and addressing key drivers.  Industrial/Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 10(2), 258-264.

15.) Howard, M. C. (2017). A meta-analysis and systematic literature review of
virtual reality rehabilitation programs. Computers in Human Behavior, 70, 317-327.

14.)  Howard, M. C. (2017). Measuring self-esteem instability through a single-
administration scale: Still a fruitless endeavor?. Personality and Individual
Differences, 104, 522-532.

13.)  Howard, M. C., Farr, J. L., Grandey, A. A., & Gutworth, M. B. (2017).  The creation of the workplace social courage scale (WSCS): An investigation of
internal consistency, psychometric properties, validity, and utility.  Journal of
Business and Psychology, 32(6), 673-690.

12.)  Howard, M. C. & Jacobs, R. R. (2016).  The multiphase optimization
strategy (MOST) and the sequential multiple assignment randomized trial (SMART): Two novel evaluation methods for developing optimal training
programs.  Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37(8), 1246-1270.

11.) Howard, M. C. (2016).  The relationship between the number of raters and the validity of performance ratings.  Industrial/Organizational Psychology:
Perspectives on Science and Practice, 9(2), 361-367.

10.)  Howard, M. C. (2016).  A Review of Exploratory Factor Analysis Decisions and Overview of Current Practices:  What We Are Doing and How Can We
Improve?  International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 32(1), 51-62.

9.) Howard, M. C. & Melloy, R. C. (2016). Evaluating item-sort task methods: The presentation of a new statistical significance formula and methodological best practices. The Journal of Business and Psychology, 31(1), 173-186.

8.) Lydon, D. M., Howard, M. C., Wilson, S. J., & Geier, C. F. (2015). The perceived causal structures of cigarette addiction among late adolescent smokers and non-smokers. The Journal of Health Psychology, 21(9), 2042-2051.

7.) Howard, M. C. & Jayne, B. S. (2015). An analysis of over 1,400 articles, 900 scales, and 17 years of research: The state of scales in CyberPsychology,
Behavior, and Social Networking. CyberPsychology, Behavior, and Social
Networking, 18(3), 181-187.

6.) Hanley, K. E., Howard, M. C., Zhong, B., Soto, J. A., Perez, C. R., Lee, E. A., Dawson-Andoh, N. A., & Minnick, M. R. (2015). The Communication Anxiety
Regulation Scale: Development and initial validation. Communication Quarterly, 63(1), 23-43.

5.) Howard, M. C. & Alipour, K. A. (2014). Does the Courage Measure really
measure courage? A theoretical and empirical evaluation. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 9(5), 449-459.

4.) Howard, M. C. (2014). Creation of a computer self-efficacy measure: Analysis of internal consistency, psychometric properties, and validity. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 17(10), 429-433.

3.) Howard, M. C. (2014). An epidemiological assessment of online groups and a test of a typology: What are the (dis)similarities of the online group types?
Computers in Human Behavior, 31, 123-133.

2.) Howard, M. C. & Magee, S. M. (2013). To boldly go where no group has gone before: An analysis of online group identity and validation of a measure.
Computers in Human Behavior, 29(5), 2058-2071.

1.) Howard, M. C. (2013). Putting the cart before the horse: Subgroup differences in childhood and employment discrimination. Industrial/Organizational
Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 6(4), 429-433.