List of Commonly-Used Scales

Below is a list of commonly-used scales.  Each listing includes all scale items and the relevant citation.  The instructions, response scale, and other notes are likewise included if they were provided in the original article.  When using these scales, please cite the relevant citation – not the current page.  Also, please double-check each entry.  I am not responsible for any missing items or typos.  As always, if you have any questions or corrections, please contact me (Matt Howard) at

Big Five

Please use this list of common human traits to describe yourself as accurately as possible.  Describe yourself as you see yourself at the present time, not as you wish to be in the future.  Describe yourself as you are generally or typically, as compared with other persons you know of the same sex and roughly your same age.  Before each trait, please write a number indicating how accurately that trait describes you, using the following rating scale.

1 – Extremely Inaccurate
2 – Very Inaccurate
3 – Moderately Inaccurate
4 – Slightly Inaccurate
6 – Slightly Accurate
7 – Moderately Accurate
8 – Very Accurate
9 – Extremely Accurate

  1. Bashful
  2. Bold
  3. Careless
  4. Cold
  5. Complex
  6. Cooperative
  7. Creative
  8. Deep
  9. Disorganized
  10. Efficient
  11. Energetic
  12. Envious
  13. Extraverted
  14. Fretful
  15. Harsh
  16. Imaginative
  17. Inefficient
  18. Intellectual
  19. Jealous
  20. Kind
  21. Moody
  22. Organized
  23. Philosophical
  24. Practical
  25. Quiet
  26. Relaxed
  27. Rude
  28. Shy
  29. Sloppy
  30. Sympathetic
  31. Systematic
  32. Talkative
  33. Temperamental
  34. Touchy
  35. Uncreative
  36. Unenvious
  37. Unintellectual
  38. Unsympathetic
  39. Warm
  40. Withdrawn

Note:  The factors are as follows…

Openness:  Creative, Imaginative, Philosophical, Intellectual, Complex, Deep, Uncreative (R), Unintellectual (R)

Conscientiousness:  Organized, Efficient, Systematic, Practical, Disorganized (R), Sloppy (R), Inefficient (R), Careless (R)

Extraverted:  Talkative, Extraverted, Bold, Energetic, Shy (R), Quiet (R), Bashful (R), Withdrawn (R)

Agreeable:  Sympathetic, Warm, Kind, Cooperative, Cold (R), Unsympathetic (R), Rude (R), Harsh (R)

Neuroticism:  Moody, Jealous, Temperamental, Envious, Touchy, Fretful, Unenvious (R), Relaxed (R)

Citation:  Saucier, G. (1994). Mini-Markers: A brief version of Goldberg’s unipolar Big-Five markers. Journal of personality assessment, 63(3), 506-516.

Big Five

Am the life of the party.
Sympathize with others’ feelings.
Get chores done right away.
Have frequent mood swings.
Have a vivid imagination.
Don’t talk a lot.
Am not interested in other people’s problems.
Often forget to put things back in their proper place.
Am relaxed most of the time.
Am not interested in abstract ideas.
Talk to a lot of different people at parties.
Feel others’ emotions.
Like order.
Get upset easily.
Have difficulty understanding abstract ideas.
Keep in the background.
Am not really interested in others.
Make a mess of things.
Seldom feel blue.
Do not have a good imagination.

Extraversion = 1, 6 (R), 11, 16 (R); Agreeableness = 2, 7 (R),12, 17 (R);
Conscientiousness = 3, 8 (R), 13, 18 (R); Neuroticism = 4, 9 (R), 14, 19 (R); Openness = 5, 10 (R), 15 (R), 20 (R)

Donnellan, M. B., Oswald, F. L., Baird, B. M., & Lucas, R. E. (2006). The Mini-IPIP scales: Tiny-yet-effective measures of the Big Five factors of personality.
Psychological Assessment, 18, 192-203.

Goldberg, L. R. (1992). The development of markers for the Big-Five factor
structure. Psychological Assessment, 4, 26-42.

Goldberg, L. R. (1999). A broad-bandwidth, public domain, personality inventory measuring the lower-level facets of several five-factor models. In I. Mervielde, I. Deary, F. De Fruyt, & F. Ostendorf (Eds.), Personality Psychology in Europe, Vol. 7 (pp. 7-28). Tilburg, The Netherlands: Tilburg University Press.

Compound PsyCap Scale (CPC-12)

  1. I am looking forward to the life ahead of me.
  2. Overall, I expect more good things to happen to me than bad.
  3. The future holds a lot of good in store for me.
  4. If I should find myself in a jam, I could think of many ways to get out of it.
  5. I can think of many ways to reach my current goals.
  6. Right now, I see myself as being pretty successful.
  7. I am confident that I could deal efficiently with unexpected events.
  8. I can solve most problems if I invest the necessary effort.
  9. I can remain calm when facing difficulties because I can rely on my coping abilities.
  10. I consider myself a person who can withstand a lot.
  11. Failure does not discourage me.
  12. I tend to bounce back quickly after serious life difficulties.

Citation: Dudasova, L., Prochazka, J., Vaculik, M., & Lorenz, T. (2021). Measuring psychological capital: Revision of the Compound Psychological Capital Scale (CPC-12). PloS one, 16(3), e0247114.

Core Self-Evaluations

Below are several statements about you with which you my agree or disagree.  Using the response scale below, indicate your agreement or disagreement with each item by placing the appropriate number on the line preceding the item.

1 – Strongly Disagree
2 – Disagree
3 – Neutral
4 – Agree
5 – Strongly Agree

  1. I am confident I get the success I deserve in life.
  2. Sometimes I feel depressed.
  3. When I try, I generally succeed.
  4. Sometimes when I fail, I feel worthless.
  5. I complete tasks successfully.
  6. Sometimes, I do not feel in control of my work.
  7. Overall, I am satisfied with myself.
  8. I am filled with doubts about my competence.
  9. I determine what will happen in my life.
  10. I do not feel in control of my success in my career.
  11. I am capable of coping with most of my problems.
  12. There are times when things look pretty bleak and hopeless to me.

Note:  Items 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 are reverse-coded.

Citation:  Judge, T. A., Erez, A., Bono, J. E., & Thoresen, C. J. (2003). The core self‐evaluations scale: Development of a measure. Personnel psychology, 56(2), 303-331.

Corporate Social Responsibility

  1. My company participates in activities which aim to protect and improve the quality of the natural environment.
  2. My company makes investment to create a better life for future generations.
  3. My company implements special programs to minimize its negative impact on the natural environment.
  4. My company targets sustainable growth which considers future generations.
  5. My company supports nongovernmental organizations working in problematic areas.
  6. My company contributes to campaigns and projects that promote the well-being of the society.
  7. My company encourages its employees to participate in voluntarily activities.
  8. My company emphasizes the importance of its social responsibilities to the society.
  9. My company policies encourage the employees to develop their skills and careers.
  10. The management of My company is primarily concerned with employees’ needs and wants.
  11. My company implements flexible policies to provide a good work & life balance for its employees.
  12. The managerial decisions related with the employees are usually fair.
  13. My company supports employees who want to acquire additional education.
  14. My company respects consumer rights beyond the legal requirements.
  15. My company provides full and accurate information about its products to its customers.
  16. Customer satisfaction is highly important for my company.
  17. My company always pays its taxes on a regular and continuing basis.
  18. My company complies with legal regulations completely and promptly.

Note: Items 1 through 8 represent the first factor (CSR to society, environment, future, and NGOs), items 9 through 13 represent the second factor (CSR to Employees), 14 through 16 represent the third factor (CSR to Customers), and items 17 through 18 represent the fourth factor (CSR to Government).

Citation:  Turker, D. (2009). Measuring corporate social responsibility: A scale development study. Journal of business ethics, 85(4), 411-427.

Counterproductive Work Behaviors

  1. Made fun of someone at work.
  2. Said something hurtful to someone at work.
  3. Made an ethnic, religious, or racial remark at work.
  4. Cursed at someone at work.
  5. Played a mean prank on someone at work.
  6. Acted rudely toward someone at work.
  7. Publicly embarrassed someone at work.
  8. Taken property from work without permission.
  9. Spent too much time fantasizing or daydreaming instead of working.
  10. Falsified a receipt to get reimbursed for more money than you spent on business expenses.
  11. Taken an additional or longer break than is acceptable at your workplace.
  12. Came in late to work without permission.
  13. Littered your work environment.
  14. Neglected to follow your boss’s instructions.
  15. Intentionally worked slower than you could have worked.
  16. Discussed confidential company information with an unauthorized person.
  17. Used an illegal drug or consumed alcohol on the job.
  18. Put little effort into your work.
  19. Dragged out work in order to get overtime.

Note:  First seven items are interpersonal deviance, last twelve items are organizational deviance.

Citation:  Bennett, R. J., & Robinson, S. L. (2000). Development of a measure of workplace deviance. Journal of applied psychology, 85(3), 349.

Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS) – 21 Item Version

  1.  I found it hard to wind down.
  2. I was aware of dryness of my mouth.
  3. I couldn’t seem to experience any positive feeling at all.
  4. I experienced breathing difficulty (e.g., excessively rapid breathing,
    breathlessness in the absence of physical exertion).
  5. I found it difficult to work up the initiative to do things.
  6. I tended to over-react to situations.
  7. I experienced trembling (e.g., in the hands).
  8. I felt that I was using a lot of nervous energy.
  9. I was worried about situations in which I might panic and make a fool of myself.
  10. I felt that I had nothing to look forward to.
  11. I found myself getting agitated.
  12. I found it difficult to relax.
  13. I felt down-hearted and blue.
  14. I was intolerant of anything that kept me from getting on with what I was doing.
  15. I felt I was close to panic.
  16. I was unable to become enthusiastic about anything.
  17. I felt I wasn’t worth much as a person.
  18. I felt that I was rather touchy.
  19. I was aware of the action of my heart in the absence of physical exertion (e.g., sense of heart rate increase, heart missing a beat).
  20. I felt scared without any good reason.
  21. I felt that life was meaningless.

Note:  Items 1, 6, 8, 11, 12, 14, and 18 represent stress; Items 3, 5, 10, 13, 16, 17, and 21 represent depression; and Items 2, 4, 7, 9, 15, 19, and 20 represent anxiety.

Citation:  Antony, M. M., Bieling, P. J., Cox, B. J., Enns, M. W., & Swinson, R. P. (1998). Psychometric properties of the 42-item and 21-item versions of the
Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in clinical groups and a community sample. Psychological assessment, 10(2), 176.

Dirty Dozen (Dark Triad; Narcissism, Psychopathy, and Machiavellianism)

  1. I tend to want others to admire me.
  2. I tend to want others to pay attention to me.
  3. I tend to expect special favors from others.
  4. I tend to seek prestige or status.
  5. I tend to lack remorse.
  6. I tend to be callous or insensitive.
  7. I tend to not be too concerned with morality or the morality of my actions.
  8. I tend to be cynical.
  9. I have used deceit or lied to get my way.
  10. I tend to manipulate others to get my way.
  11. I have used flattery to get my way.
  12. I tend to exploit others towards my own end.

Note: Items 1-4 represent narcissism, items 5-8 represent psychopathy, and items 9-12 represent Machiavellianism.

Citation:  Jonason, P. K., & Webster, G. D. (2010). The dirty dozen: a concise measure of the dark triad. Psychological assessment, 22(2), 420.

Ethical Leadership

  1. Conducts his/her personal life in an ethical manner.
  2. Defines success not just by results but also by the way that they are obtained.
  3. Listens to what employees have to say.
  4. Disciplines employees who violate ethical standards.
  5. Makes fair and balanced decisions.
  6. Can be trusted.
  7. Discusses business ethics or values with employees.
  8. Sets an example of how to do things the right way in terms of ethics.
  9. Has the best interests of employees in mind.
  10. When making decisions, asks “what is the right thing to do?”

Citation:  Brown, M. E., Treviño, L. K., & Harrison, D. A. (2005). Ethical leadership: A social learning perspective for construct development and testing. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 97(2), 117-134.


  1. I would be quite bored by a visit to an art gallery.
  2. I plan ahead and organize things, to avoid scrambling at the last minute.
  3. I rarely hold a grudge, even against people who have badly wronged me.
  4. I feel reasonably satisfied with myself overall.
  5. I would feel afraid if I had to travel in bad weather conditions.
  6. I wouldn’t use flattery to get a raise or promotion at work, even if I thought it would succeed.
  7. I’m interested in learning about the history and politics of other countries.
  8. I often push myself very hard when trying to achieve a goal.
  9. People sometimes tell me that I am too critical of others.
  10. I rarely express my opinions in group meetings.
  11. I sometimes can’t help worrying about little things.
  12. If I knew that I could never get caught, I would be willing to steal a million dollars.
  13. I would enjoy creating a work of art, such as a novel, a song, or a painting.
  14. When working on something, I don’t pay much attention to small details.
  15. People sometimes tell me that I’m too stubborn.
  16. I prefer jobs that involve active social interaction to those that involve working alone.
  17. When I suffer from a painful experience, I need someone to make me feel comfortable.
  18. Having a lot of money is not especially important to me.
  19. I think that paying attention to radical ideas is a waste of time.
  20. I make decisions based on the feeling of the moment rather than on careful thought.
  21. People think of me as someone who has a quick temper.
  22. On most days, I feel cheerful and optimistic.
  23. I feel like crying when I see other people crying.
  24. I think that I am entitled to more respect than the average person is.
  25. If I had the opportunity, I would like to attend a classical music concert.
  26. When working, I sometimes have difficulties due to being disorganized.
  27. My attitude toward people who have treated me badly is “forgive and forget”.
  28. I feel that I am an unpopular person.
  29. When it comes to physical danger, I am very fearful.
  30. If I want something from someone, I will laugh at that person’s worst jokes.
  31. I’ve never really enjoyed looking through an encyclopedia.
  32. I do only the minimum amount of work needed to get by.
  33. I tend to be lenient in judging other people.
  34. In social situations, I’m usually the one who makes the first move.
  35. I worry a lot less than most people do.
  36. I would never accept a bribe, even if it were very large.
  37. People have often told me that I have a good imagination.
  38. I always try to be accurate in my work, even at the expense of time.
  39. I am usually quite flexible in my opinions when people disagree with me.
  40. The first thing that I always do in a new place is to make friends.
  41. I can handle difficult situations without needing emotional support from anyone else.
  42. I would get a lot of pleasure from owning expensive luxury goods.
  43. I like people who have unconventional views.
  44. I make a lot of mistakes because I don’t think before I act.
  45. Most people tend to get angry more quickly than I do.
  46. Most people are more upbeat and dynamic than I generally am.
  47. I feel strong emotions when someone close to me is going away for a long time.
  48. I want people to know that I am an important person of high status.
  49. I don’t think of myself as the artistic or creative type.
  50. People often call me a perfectionist.
  51. Even when people make a lot of mistakes, I rarely say anything negative.
  52. I sometimes feel that I am a worthless person.
  53. Even in an emergency I wouldn’t feel like panicking.
  54. I wouldn’t pretend to like someone just to get that person to do favors for me.
  55. I find it boring to discuss philosophy.
  56. I prefer to do whatever comes to mind, rather than stick to a plan.
  57. When people tell me that I’m wrong, my first reaction is to argue with them.
  58. When I’m in a group of people, I’m often the one who speaks on behalf of the group.
  59. I remain unemotional even in situations where most people get very sentimental.
  60. I’d be tempted to use counterfeit money, if I were sure I could get away with it.

Scoring key:
Honesty-Humility – 6, 12R, 18, 24R, 30R, 36, 42R, 48R, 54, 60R
Emotionality – 5, 11, 17, 23, 29, 35R, 41R, 47, 53R, 59R
Extraversion – 4, 10R, 16, 22, 28R, 34, 40, 46R, 52R, 58
Agreeableness (versus Anger) – 3, 9R, 15R, 21R, 27, 33, 39, 45, 51, 57R
Conscientiousness – 2, 8, 14R, 20R, 26R, 32R, 38, 44R, 50, 56R
Openness to Experience – 1R, 7, 13, 19R, 25, 31R, 37, 43, 49R, 55R

Citation:  Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2009). The HEXACO–60: A short measure of the major dimensions of personality. Journal of personality assessment, 91(4), 340-345.


  1. I often set a goal but later choose to pursue a different one
  2. New ideas and new projects sometimes distract me from previous ones
  3. I become interested in new pursuits every few months
  4. My interests change from year to year
  5. I have been obsessed with a certain idea or project for a short time but later lose interest
  6. I have difficulty maintaining my focus on projects that take more than a few months to complete
  7. I have achieved a goal that took years of work
  8. I have overcome setbacks to conquer an important challenge
  9. I finish whatever I begin
  10. Setbacks don’t discourage me
  11. I am a hard worker
  12. I am diligent

Note:  Items 1 through 6 represent the consistency of interest subscale.  Items 7 through 12 represent the perseverance of effort subscale.

Citation:  Duckworth, A. L., Peterson, C., Matthews, M. D., & Kelly, D. R. (2007). Grit: perseverance and passion for long-term goals. Journal of personality and social psychology, 92(6), 1087.

Impression Management

  1. Talk proudly about your experience or education
  2. Make people aware of your talents or qualifications
  3. Let others know that you are valuable to the organization
  4. Make people aware of your accomplishments
  5. Complement your colleagues so that they will see you as likable
  6. Take an interest in your colleagues’ personal likes to show them that you are friendly
  7. Praise your colleagues for their accomplishments so they will consider you a nice person
  8. Do personal favors for your colleagues to show them that you are friendly
  9. Stay at work late so people will know you are hard working
  10. Try to appear busy, even at times when things are slower
  11. Arrive at work early to look dedicated
  12. Come to the office at night or on weekends to show that you are dedicated
  13. Be intimidating with coworkers when it will help you get your job done
  14. Let others know that you can make things difficult for them if they push you too far
  15. Deal forcefully with colleagues when they hamper your ability to get your job done
  16. Deal strongly or aggressively with coworkers who interfere in your business
  17. Use intimidation to get colleagues to behave appropriately
  18. Act like you know less than you do so people will help you out
  19. Try to gain assistance or sympathy from people by appearing needy in some area
  20. Pretend not to understand something to gain someone’s help
  21. Act like you need assistance so people will help you out
  22. Pretend to know less than you do so you can avoid an unpleasant assignment

Note:  Items 1 through 4 represent the factor of self-promotion, items 5 through 8 represent the factor of ingratiation, items 9 through 12 represent the factor of exemplification, items 13 through 17 represent the factor of intimidation, and items 18 through 22 represent the factor of supplication.

Citation:  Bolino, M. C., & Turnley, W. H. (1999). Measuring impression management in organizations: A scale development based on the Jones and Pittman taxonomy. Organizational Research Methods, 2(2), 187-206.

Life Satisfaction

  1. In most ways, my life is close to ideal.
  2. The conditions of my life are excellent.
  3. I am satisfied with my life.
  4. So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life.
  5. If I could live my life over, I would change almost nothing at all.

Citation:  Diener, E. D., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of personality assessment, 49(1), 71-75.

Machiavellian Personality

  1. I believe that lying is necessary to maintain a competitive advantage over others.
  2. The only good reason to talk to others is to get information that I can use to my benefit.
  3. I am willing to be unethical if I believe it will help me succeed.
  4. I am willing to sabotage the efforts of other people if they threaten my own goals.
  5. I would cheat if there was a low chance of getting caught.
  6. I like to give the orders in interpersonal situations
  7. I enjoy having control over other people
  8. I enjoy being able to control the situation
  9. Status is a good sign of success in life
  10. Accumulating wealth is an important goal for me
  11. I want to be rich and powerful someday
  12. People are only motivated by personal gain
  13. I dislike committing to groups because I don’t trust others
  14. Team members backstab each other all the time to get ahead
  15. If I show any weakness at work, other people will take advantage of it
  16. Other people are always planning ways to take advantage of the situation at my expense

Note:  Items 1 through 5 represent the amorality subscale, items 6 through 8 represent the desire for control subscale, items 9 through 11 represent the desire for status subscale, and items 12 through 16 represent the distrust of others subscale.

Citation:  Dahling, J. J., Whitaker, B. G., & Levy, P. E. (2008). The development and validation of a new Machiavellianism scale. Journal of management.

Moral Attentiveness

  1. In a typical day, I face several ethical dilemmas.
  2. I often have to choose between doing what’s right and doing something that’s wrong.
  3. I regularly face decisions that have significant ethical implications.
  4. My life has been filled with one moral predicament after another.
  5. Many of the decisions that I make have ethical dimensions to them.
  6. I regularly think about the ethical implications of my decisions.
  7. I think about the morality of my actions almost every day.
  8. I rarely face ethical dilemmas.
  9. I frequently encounter ethical situations.
  10. I often find myself pondering about ethical issues.
  11. I often reflect on the moral aspects of my decisions.
  12. I like to think about ethics.

Citation:  Reynolds, S. J. (2008). Moral attentiveness: Who pays attention to the moral aspects of life?. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(5), 1027.

Moral Identity

Listed below are some characteristics that may describe a person.


The person with these characteristics could be you or it could be someone else.  For a moment, visualize in your mind the kind of person who has these characteristics.  Imagine how that person would think, feel, and act.  When you have a clear image of what this person would be like, answer the following questions.

  1. It would make me feel good to be a person who has these characteristics.
  2. Being someone who has these characteristics is an important part of who I am
  3. I would be ashamed to be a person who has these characteristics.
  4. Having these characteristics is not really important to me.
  5. I strongly desire to have these characteristics.
  6. I often wear clothes that identify me as having these characteristics.
  7. The types of things I do in my spare time (e.g. hobbies) clearly identify me as having these characteristics.
  8. The kind of books and magazines that I read identify me as having these characteristics.
  9. The fact that I have these characteristics is communicated to others by my membership in certain organizations.
  10. I am actively involved in activities that communicate to others that I have these characteristics.

Note: Items 1 through 5 represent the factor of internalization.  Items 6 through 6 represent the factor of symbolization.  Items 3 and 4 are reverse coded.

Citation:  Aquino, K., & Reed II, A. (2002). The self-importance of moral identity. Journal of personality and social psychology, 83(6), 1423.

Organizational Citizenship Behaviors

  1. Helps others who have been absent.
  2. Helps others who have heavy workloads.
  3. Assists supervisor with his/her work (when not asked).
  4. Takes time to listen to co-workers’ problems and worries.
  5. Goes out of way to help new employees.
  6. Takes a personal interest in other employees.
  7. Passes along information to co-workers.
  8. Attendance at work is above the norm.
  9. Gives advance notice when unable to come to work.
  10. Takes undeserved work breaks.
  11. Great deal of time spent with personal phone conversations.
  12. Complains about insignificant things at work.
  13. Adheres to informal rules devised to maintain order.

Notes:  First seven items are for OCBI dimension, last six items are for OCBO dimension.  Items 10, 11, and 12 are reverse coded.

Citation:  Williams, L. J., & Anderson, S. E. (1991). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors. Journal of management, 17(3), 601-617.


1 – Never ; 2 – Once in a While ; 3 – Sometimes ; 4 – Fairly Often ; 5 – Often ; 6 – Constantly ; 7 – Always

  1. Others ignored you at work.
  2. Others left the area when you entered.
  3. Your greetings have gone unanswered at work.
  4. You involuntary sat alone in a crowded lunchroom at work.
  5. Others avoided you at work.
  6. You noticed others would not look at you at work.
  7. Others at work shut you out of the conversation.
  8. Others refused to talk to you at work.
  9. Others at work treated you as if you weren’t there.
  10. Others at work did not invite you or ask you if you wanted anything when they went out for a coffee break.
Ferris, D. L., Brown, D. J., Berry, J. W., & Lian, H. (2008). The development and validation of the Workplace Ostracism Scale. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(6), 1348.


  1. Amount of effort that I put into my work.
  2. Overall quality of my work that I do.
  3. Overall quantity of my work, referring to how much work I complete.
  4. Overall creativity of my work, referring to how often I develop original and useful ideas, methods, or products for the office.
  5. Extra work-related activities referring to how willing I am to perform activities that are not party of my required job in the company.

Citation:  Jensen, J. M., Patel, P. C., & Raver, J. L. (2014). Is it better to be average? High and low performance as predictors of employee victimization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99(2), 296.


Persistence Despite Difficulty

  1. I keep on going when the going gets tough.
  2. People describe me as someone who can stick to a task, even when it gets difficult.
  3. Even if it’s difficult to understand, I will read an entire book until I “get” it.
  4. Setbacks do not discourage me.
  5. Even if something is hard, I will keep trying at it.

Persistence Despite Fear

  1. I tend to face my fears.
  2. Even if I feel terrified, I will stay in that situation until I have done what I need to do.
  3. I stay persistent even when I am scared of things.
  4. If I am worried or anxious about something, I will do or face it anyway.
  5. If something is scary, I will do it anyways.

Inappropriate Persistence

  1. Sometimes I find myself continuing to do something, even when there is no point in carrying on.
  2. Sometimes I will keep doing the same thing over and over, but I believe that it is normal to do so.
  3. I will keep trying at something, even if I know my actions are worthless.

Citation:  Howard, M. C., & Crayne, M. P. (2019). Persistence: Defining the multidimensional construct and creating a measure. Personality and Individual Differences, 139, 77-89.

Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS)

This scale consists of a number of words that describe different feelings and emotions.  Read each item and then list the number from the scale below next to each word. Indicate to what extent you [INSERT APPROPRIATE TIME INSTRUCTIONS HERE].
1 – Very Slightly or Not at All
2 – A Little
3 – Moderately
4 – Quite a Bit
5 – Extremely
  1. Interested
  2. Distressed
  3. Excited
  4. Upset
  5. Strong
  6. Guilty
  7. Scared
  8. Hostile
  9. Enthusiastic
  10. Proud
  11. Irritable
  12. Alert
  13. Ashamed
  14. Inspired
  15. Nervous
  16. Determined
  17. Attentive
  18. Jittery
  19. Active
  20. Afraid
Note: Items 1, 3, 5, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 17, and 19 represent positive affect.  Items 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 11, 13, 15, 18, and 20 represent negative affect.
Time instructions may include:
  • feel this way right now, that is, at the present moment
  • have felt this way today
  • have felt this way during the past few days
  • have felt this way during the past week
  • have felt this way during the past few weeks
  • have felt this way during the past year
  • generally feel this way, that is, how you feel on average
Citation:  Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of personality and social psychology, 54(6), 1063.

Prosocial Rule Breaking

Please indicate the extent to which you engage in the following behaviors at work.  There are no right or wrong answers to these questions, so please respond honestly. (1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree).

  1. I break organizational rules or policies to do my job more efficiently.
  2. I violate organizational policies to save the company time and money.
  3. I ignore organizational rules to “cut the red tape” and be a more effective worker.
  4. When organizational rules interfere with my job duties, I break those rules.
  5. I disobey company regulations that result in inefficiency for the organization.
  6. I break organizational rules if my co-workers need help with their duties.
  7. When another employee needs my help, I disobey organizational policies to help him/her.
  8. I assist other employees with their work by breaking organizational rules.
  9. I help out other employees, even if it means disregarding organizational policies.
  10. I break rules that stand in the way of good customer service.
  11. I give good service to clients or customers by ignoring organizational policies that interfere with my job.
  12. I break organizational rules to provide better customer service.
  13. I bend organizational rules so that I can best assist customers.

Citation:  Dahling, J. J., Chau, S. L., Mayer, D. M., & Gregory, J. B. (2012). Breaking rules for the right reasons? An investigation of pro‐social rule breaking. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33(1), 21-42.

Psychological Safety

  1. If you make a mistake on this team, it is often held against you.
  2. Members of this team are able to bring up problems and tough issues.
  3. People on this team sometimes reject others for being different.
  4. It is safe to take a risk on this team.
  5. It is difficult to ask other members of this team for help.
  6. No one on this team would deliberately act in a way that undermines my efforts.
  7. Working with members of this team, my unique skills and talents are valued and utilized.

Citation: Edmondson, A. (1999). Psychological safety and learning behavior in work teams. Administrative science quarterly, 44(2), 350-383.


  1. I will be able to achieve most of the goals that I have set for myself.
  2. When facing difficult tasks, I am certain that I will accomplish them.
  3. In general, I think that I can obtain outcomes that are important to me.
  4. I believe I can succeed at most any endeavor to which I set my mind.
  5. I will be able to successfully overcome many challenges.
  6. I am confident that I can perform effectively on many different tasks.
  7. Compared to other people, I can do most tasks very well.
  8. Even when things are tough, I can perform quite well.

Citation:  Chen, G., Gully, S. M., & Eden, D. (2001). Validation of a new general self-efficacy scale. Organizational research methods, 4(1), 62-83.


Below is a list of statements dealing with your general feelings about yourself.  Please indicate how strongly you disagree or agree with each statement.

  1. I feel that I am a person of worth, at least on an equal plane with others.
  2. I feel that I have a number of good qualities.
  3. All in all, I am inclined to feel that I am a failure.
  4. I am able to do things as well as most other people.
  5. I feel I do not have much to be proud of.
  6. I take a positive attitude toward myself.
  7. On the whole, I am satisfied with myself.
  8. I wish I could have more respect for myself.
  9. I certainly feel useless at times.
  10. At times I think I am no good at all.

Citation:  Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image.

Short Dark Triad (Machiavellianism, Narcissism, and Psychopathy)

  1. It’s not wise to tell your secrets.
  2. I like to use clever manipulation to get my way.
  3. Whatever it takes, you must get the important people on your side.
  4. Avoid direct conflict with others because they may be useful in the future.
  5. It’s wise to keep track of information that you can use against people later.
  6. You should wait for the right time to get back at people.
  7. There are things you should hide from other people to preserve your reputation.
  8. Make sure your plans benefit yourself, not others.
  9. Most people can be manipulated.
  10. People see me as a natural leader.
  11. I hate being the center of attention.
  12. Many group activities tend to be dull without me.
  13. I know that I am special because everyone keeps telling me so.
  14. I like to get acquainted with important people.
  15. I feel embarrassed if someone complements me.
  16. I have been compared to famous people.
  17. I am an average person.
  18. I insist on getting the respect I deserve.
  19. I like to get revenge on authorities.
  20. I avoid dangerous situations.
  21. Payback needs to be quick and nasty.
  22. People often say I’m out of control.
  23. It’s true that I can be mean to others.
  24. People who mess with me always regret it.
  25. I have never gotten into trouble with the law.
  26. I enjoy having sex with people I hardly know.
  27. I’ll say anything to get what I want.

Note: Items 1-9 represent Machiavelliaism, items 10-18 represent narcissism, and items 19-27 represent psychopathy.  Items 11, 15, 17, 20, and 25 are reverse-coded.

Citation: Jones, D. N., & Paulhus, D. L. (2014). Introducing the short dark triad (SD3) a brief measure of dark personality traits. Assessment, 21(1), 28-41.

Socially Desirable Responding

  1. I have enjoyed my bowel movements before
  2. I have been uncertain as to whether or not I am homosexual
  3. People often disappointment me
  4. Life is a strain for me most of the time
  5. I have doubted my sexual adequacy
  6. I worry quite a bit over possible misfortunes
  7. I have thought that my parents hated me before
  8. I have several times given up doing something because I thought too little of my ability
  9. In a group of people I have trouble thinking of the right things to talk about
  10. I have thought of committing suicide in order to get back at someone before
  11. I tell the truth
  12. When I take a sick-leave from work or school, I am as sick as I say I am
  13. I am always courteous, even to people who are disagreeable
  14. Once in a while, I laugh at a dirty joke.
  15. I sometimes try to get even, rather than forgive and forget.
  16. I always apologize to others for my mistakes.
  17. I declare everything at customers, even if I knew that I could never be found out.
  18. I never attend a sexy show if I can avoid it.
  19. Sometimes at elections, I vote for candidates I know little about.
  20. I am sometimes irritated by people who ask favors of me.

Note:  Items 1 through 10 represent a self-deception dimension.  Items 11 through 20 represent an impression management dimension.

Citation:  Paulhus, D. L. (1984). Two-component models of socially desirable responding. Journal of personality and social psychology, 46(3), 598.


  1. I develop and make recommendations concerning issues that affect this work-group.
  2. I speak up and encourage others in this group to get involved in issues that affect the group.
  3. I communicate my opinions about work issues to others in this group even if my opinion is different and others in the group disagree with me.
  4. I keep well informed about issues where my opinion might be useful to the work-group.
  5. I get involved in issues that affect the quality of work-life here in this group.
  6. I speak up in my group with ideas for new projects or changes in procedures.

Citation:  Van Dyne, L., & LePine, J. A. (1998). Helping and voice extra-role behaviors: Evidence of construct and predictive validity. Academy of Management journal, 41(1), 108-119.


  1. Defends organizational programs that are worthwhile when others unfairly criticize the programs.
  2. Expresses support for productive work procedures when others express uncalled for criticisms of the procedures.
  3. Speaks up in support of organizational policies that have merit when others raise unjustified concerns about the policies.
  4. Defends useful organizational policies when other employees unfairly criticize the policies.
  5. Defends effective work methods when others express invalid criticisms of the methods.
  6. Frequently makes suggestions about how to do things in new or more effective ways at work.
  7. Often suggests changes to work projects in order to make them better.
  8. Often speaks up with recommendations about how to fix work-related problems.
  9. Frequently makes suggestions about how to improve work methods or practices.
  10. Regularly proposes ideas for new or more effective work methods.
  11. Stubbornly argues against changing work methods, even when the proposed changes have merit.
  12. Speaks out against changing work policies, even when making changes would be fore the best.
  13. Vocally opposes changing how things are done, even when changing in inevitable.
  14. Rigidly argues against changing work procedures, even when implementing the changes makes sense.
  15. Vocally argues against changing work practices, even when making the changes is necessary.
  16. Often bad-mouths the organization’s policies or objectives.
  17. Often makes insulting comments about work-related programs or initiatives.
  18. Frequently makes overly critical comments regarding how things are done in the organization.
  19. Often makes overly critical comments about the organization’s work practices of methods.
  20. Harshly criticizes the organization’s policies, even though the criticism is unfounded.

Note:  Items 1 through 5 measure supportive voice, 6 through 10 measure constructive voice, 11 through 15 measure defensive voice, and 16 through 20 measure destructive voice.

Citation:  Maynes, T. D., & Podsakoff, P. M. (2014). Speaking more broadly: An examination of the nature, antecedents, and consequences of an expanded set of employee voice behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99(1), 87.

Workplace Social Courage Scale (WSCS)

There are many risks that could be involved in workplace interactions.  These risks could range from minor to severe risks, depending on the behavior.  For the following, please rate your agreement that you would perform the following behaviors despite the risks involved.  Use the scale below:

1 = Strongly Disagree
2 = Disagree
3 = Slightly Disagree
4 = Neutral
5 = Slightly Agree
6 = Agree
7 = Strongly Agree

You should NOT answer these questions with your current job or workgroup in mind.  Instead, respond based on how you would act in a workplace after working there for five years.

  1. Although it may damage our friendship, I would tell my superior when a coworker is doing something incorrectly.
  2. Although my coworker may become offended, I would suggest to him/her better ways to do things.
  3. If I thought a question was dumb, I would still ask it if I didn’t understand something at work.
  4. Even if my coworkers could think less of me, I’d lead a project with a chance of failure.
  5. I would not tolerate when a coworker is rude to someone, even if I make him/her upset.
  6. Despite my subordinate disliking me, I would tell him/her when they’re doing something against company policy.
  7. I would let my coworkers know when I am concerned about something, even if they’d think I am too negative.
  8. Even if it may damage our relationship, I would confront a subordinate who had been disrupting their work-group.
  9. Although it makes me look incompetent, I would tell my coworkers when I’ve made a mistake.
  10. Despite appearing dumb in front of an audience, I would volunteer to give a presentation at work.
  11. Although it may completely ruin our friendship, I would give a coworker an honest performance appraisal.

Citation:  Howard, M. C., Farr, J. L., Grandey, A. A., & Gutworth, M. B. (2016).  The Creation of the Workplace Social Courage Scale (WSCS): An Investigation of Internal Consistency, Psychometric Properties, Validity, and Utility. Journal of Business and Psychology, 1-18.


  1. What is your gender?
    1. Female
    2. Male
    3. Other
  2. What is your current age in years?
  3. What is your race or ethnic group?
  4. What is the highest level of education that you have completed?
    1. Less than high school
    2. High school graduate or GED
    3. Some college
    4. 2-Year college degree (associates, etc.)
    5. 4-Year college degree (BA, BS, etc.)
    6. Graduate degree (MBA, MFA, MS, etc.)
    7. Doctorate (Ph.D., MD, etc.)
    8. Other
  5. What is your current employment status?
    1. Full time employment
    2. Part time employment
    3. Not employed, looking for work
    4. Not employed, not looking for work
    5. Student
    6. Retired
    7. Disabled, unable to work
    8. Other
  6. How many hours per week do you normally work?
  7. How many years and months have you been at your current job?
  8. How many years and months have you worked with your current supervisor?
  9. Is your job designated as management?
  10. What is your current annual household income?  Please round to the nearest $5,000.
  11. How proficient are you in the English language?
    1. Excellent
    2. Very Good
    3. Good
    4. Fair
    5. Poor
  12. What is your martial status?
    1. Single, never married
    2. Married or domestic partnership
    3. Widowed
    4. Divorced
    5. Separated
    6. Other
  13. Which of the following describes the principal industry of your job?
    1. Agriculture & Forestry/Wildlife
    2. Business & Information
    3. Construction/Utilities/Contracting
    4. Education
    5. Finance & Insurance
    6. Food & Hospitality
    7. Gaming
    8. Health Services
    9. Motor Vehicle
    10. Natural Resources/Environmental
    11. Personal Services
    12. Real Estate & Housing
    13. Safety/Security & Legal
    14. Transportation
    15. Other

Citation: None

Other websites with commonly-used scales: